Falling hormone levels due to age (menopause), surgery, chemotherapy or breast-feeding may lead to a deterioration in the thickness and resilience of vaginal and surrounding tissues as well as necessary moisture production. This may cause feelings of itchiness, dryness or burning as well as pain during intercourse. Some may also find it makes them prone to urinary incontinence, recurrent infections, or a degree of prolapse, although other factors may also influence these symptoms.
Some women are able to take hormone treatments to improve these problems, however, some will be unable or unwilling to do so because of other medical or genetic concerns. For those using topical hormone creams, this should be ceased 3 days before laser treatment, if possible.